In Press (June 2017)

Williams, J.N., Trejo, I., and Schwartz, M.W. 2017. Commonness, rarity and oligarchies of woody plants in the tropical dry forests of Mexico. Biotropica

Schwartz, M.W. 2017. The Endangered Species Act. Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene. Elsevier Press. In press.

Aplet, G., Corney, J., Famolare, L., Schwartz, M.W. 2017. Ecological Careers in Nature Based Non-Governmental Organizations. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Schwartz, M.W., Hiers, K.J., Davis, F.W., Garfin, G., Jackson, S.T., Terando, A.J., Woodhouse C.A., Morelli, T.L., Williamson, M.A. 2017. Developing a translational ecology workforce. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Enquist, C., Jackson, S.T. and 27 others. Foundations in translational ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

North M.P., Schwartz, M.W., Collins, B.M., , Keane, J.J. 2017. Current and projected condition of mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests. Chapter 5 in The California Spotted Owl: Current State of Knowledge (R. Guttierrez, R.J., Manley, P.N., Stine, P., eds). US Forest Service General Technical Report.


Peters, C.B. Zhan, Y. Schwartz, M.W. Godoy, L. Ballard, H.L. 2017. Volunteer-based monitoring by land trusts for conservation. Biological Conservation 208: 48-54.


Gao, Q., Schwartz, M.W., Zhu, W.Q., Wan, Y.F., Qin, X.B., Ma, X., Liu, S., Williamson, M.A., Peters, C.B. 2016. Changes in Global Grassland Productivity during 1982 to 2011 Attributable to Climatic Factors. Remote Sensing, 2016, 8, 384; doi:10.3390/rs8050384.

Clark, J.S. Iverson, L. Woodall, C.W. Allen, C.D. Bell, D.M. Bragg, D.C. D’Amato, A.W. Davis, F.W. Hersh, M. Ibanez, I. Jackson, S.T. Matthews, S. Pederson, N. Peters, M. Schwartz, M. Waring, K. Zimmerman, N.E. 2016. The impacts of increasing drought on forest dynamics, structure, and biodiversity in the United States. Global Change Biology 22:2329-2352.

Ganjurjav, H., Gao, Q.Z., Gornish, E.S., Schwartz, M.W., Liang, Y., Cao, X.J., Zhang, W.N., Zhang, Y., Li, W.H., Wan, Y.F., Li, Y., Danjiu, L.B., Guo, H.B., Lin, E.D. 2016. Differential response of alpine steppe and alpine meadow to climate warming in the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 223:233-240.

Gao,Q., Zhu, W.Q., Schwartz, M.W., Ganjurjav, H., Wan, Y.F., Qin, X.B., Ma, X., Williamson, M.A., Li, Y. 2016. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands. Scientific Reports 6:26958.

Schwartz, M.W. 2016. Elucidating biological opportunities and constraint on assisted colonization. Applied Vegetation Science 19: 185-186.

Ganjurjav H., Gao Q., Schwartz M. W., Zhu W., Liang Y., Li Y., Wan Y., Cao X. Williamson M.A., Jiangcun W., Guo, H., Lin E. 2016. Complex responses of spring vegetation growth to climate in a moisture-limited alpine meadow. Scientific Reports, 2016, 6, 23356; doi: 10.1038/srep23356.

Wright, A.N., Hijmans, R.J., Schwartz, M.W., Shaffer, H.B. 2016. Advances in climate models from CMIP3 to CMIP5 do not change predictions of future habitat suitability for California reptiles and amphibians. Climatic Change 134: 579-591.

Evans, D.M., Che-Castaldo, J.P., Crouse, D., Davis, F.W., Epanchin-Niell, R., Flather, C.H., Frohlich, R.K., Goble, G.D., Li, Y.W., Male, T.D., Master, L.L., Moskwik, M.P., Neel, M.C., Noon, B.R., Parmesan, C., Schwartz, M.W., Scott, J.M., Williams, B.K. 2015. Species Recovery in the United States: Increasing the Effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act. Issues in Ecology. Issues in Ecology #20.

Lacher, I.L. and Schwartz, M.W. 2016. Empirical test on the relative climatic sensitivity between individuals of narrowly and broadly distributed species. Ecosphere 7(3):e01227. 10.1002/ecs2.1227


Game E.T., Schwartz, M.W., Knight A.T. 2015. Policy relevant conservation Science. Conservation Letters 8: 309-311.

Strauss, S.Y., N.I. Cacho, M.W. Schwartz, A.C. Schwartz, K.C. Burns. 2015. Apparency revisited. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata

Schwartz, M.W., Butt, N., Dolanc, C.R., Holguin, A., Moritz, M.A., North, M.P., Safford, H.D., Stephenson, N.L., Thorne, J.H., van Mantgem, P.J. 2015. Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change. Ecosphere 6: article 121

Javeline, D., Hellmann, J.J., McLachlan, J.S., Sax, D.F., Schwartz, M.W., Cornejo, R.C. 2015. Expert opinion on extinction risk and climate change adaptation for biodiversity. DOI:10.12952.

Wright, A.N., Hijmans, R.J., Schwartz, M.W., Shaffer, H.B. 2015. Multiple sources of uncertainty affect metrics for ranking conservation risk under climate change. Diversity and Distributions 21: 111-122.


Wathen, S., Thorne, J.H., Holguin, A. and Schwartz M.W. 2014Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. PLoS One 9:e112465.

Sanchirico, J.N., Springborn, M.R., Schwartz, M.W., Doerr, A.N. 2014. Investment and the policy process in conservation monitoring. Conservation Biology28: 361-371.


Schwartz, M.W., Smith, L.M., Steel, Z.L. 2013. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban environments. PLOS One 8: e83809.

Guisan, A., Tingley, R., Baumgartner, J.B., Naujokaitis-Lewis, I., Sutcliffe, P.R., Tulloch, A.T., Regan, T.J., Brotons, L., McDonald-Madden, E, Mantyka-Pringle, C., Martin, T.G., Rhodes, J.R., Maggini, R., Setterfield, S.A., Elith, J., Schwartz, M. W., Wintle, B.A., Broennimann, O., Austin, M., Ferrier, S., Kearney, M.R., Possingham, H.P., Buckley, Y.M. 2013. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions. Ecology Letters 16: 1424-1435.

Dolanc, C.R., Westfall, R.D., Safford, H.D., Thorne, J.H., Schwartz, M.W. 2013. Growth-climate relationships for six sub-alpine tree species of the central Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43(12): 1114-1126, 10.1139/cjfr-2013-0196

Schwartz, M.W., Dolanc C.R., Gao. H., Strauss, S.Y., Schwartz, A.C., Williams, J.N., Tang, Y. 2013. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China. PLoS One 8(8): e71559.

Schwartz, M.W., Martin T.G. 2013. Translocation of imperiled species under changing climates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1286: 15-28.

Hameed, S., Doerr, A., Baty, J., Holzer, K., Schwartz, M.W. 2013. Evaluating the utility of different climate change vulnerability assessment tools. J. of Environmental Management 121:37-47.

Cook, C., Mascia, M. Schwartz, M.W., Possingham, H. Fuller, R. 2013. Achieving conservation science that bridges the knowledge-action boundary. Conservation Biology 27: 669-678.

Blickely, J.L., Deiner, K., Garbach, K., Lacher, I., Meek, M.H., Porensky, L.M., Wilkerson, M.L., Winford, E.M., Schwartz, M.W. 2013. A Graduate student’s guide to necessary skill sets for conservation careers. Conservation Biology 27: 24-34.


Schwartz, M.W. Deiner, K., Forrester, T., Grof-Tisca, P. Muir, M.J., Santos, M.J., Souza, L.E., Wilkerson, M.L., Zylberberg, M. 2012. Perspectives on the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. Biological Conservation 155: 169-177.

Schwartz, M.W. 2012. Using niche models with climate projections to inform conservation management decisions. Biological Conservation 155:149-156.

de Mazancourt, C. and Schwartz M.W. 2012. Starve a competitor: evolution of luxury consumption as a competitive strategy. Theoretical Ecology, 5(1): 37-49.

Schwartz, M.W., Hellmann, J.J., McLachlan, J.M. , Sax D.F., Borevitz, J.O., Brennan, J., Camacho, A.E. , Ceballos, G., Clark, J.R., Doremus, H., Early, R., Etterson, J.R., Fielder, D., Gill, J.L., Gonzalez, P., Green, N., Hannah, L., Jamieson, D.W., Javeline. D., Minteer, B.A., Odenbaugh, J., Polasky, S., Richardson, D.M., Root, T.L., Safford, H.D., Sala, O., Schneider, S.H., Thompson, A.R., Williams, J.W., Vellend, M., Vitt, P., Zellmer, S. 2012. Managed relocation: integrating the scientific, regulatory and ethical challenges. Bioscience 62:732-743.


Dominguez-Lozano, F., Moreno-Saiz, J.C., and M.W. Schwartz. 2011. Demographic modeling and monitoring cycle in a long-lived endangered shrub. J for Nature Conservation 19:330-338.

Duncan, R. P., S. E. Clemants, R. T. Corlett, A. K. Hahs, M. A. McCarthy, M. J. McDonnell, M. W. Schwartz, K. Thompson, P. A. Vesk, and N. S. G. Williams. 2011. Plant traits and extinction in urban areas: a meta-analysis of 11 cities. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20:509-519.

Mwampamba, T. H., and M. W. Schwartz. 2011. The effects of cultivation history on forest recovery in fallows in the Eastern Arc Mountain, Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 261:1042-1052.


de Mazancourt, C., and M. W. Schwartz. 2010. A resource ratio theory of cooperation. Ecology Letters 13:349-359.

Lyons, K.G. A.M. Shapiro, Schwartz, M.W. 2010. Distribution and ecotypic variation of the invasive annual barb goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis) on serpentine soil. Invasive Plant Science and Management 4:376-389.

Prasad, A. M., L. R. Iverson, M. P. Peters, J. M. Bossenbroek, S. N. Matthews, T. D. Sydnor, and M. W. Schwartz. 2010. Modeling the invasive emerald ash borer risk of spread using a spatially explicit cellular model. Landscape Ecology 25:353-369.

Sexton, J. P., M. W. Schwartz, and B. Winterhalder. 2010. Incorporating sociocultural adaptive capacity in conservation hotspot assessments. Diversity and Distributions 16:439-450.

Williams, J. N., J. H. Viers, and M. W. Schwartz. 2010. Tropical dry forest trees and the relationship between local abundance and geographic range. Journal of Biogeography 37:951-959.


Hahs, A. K., M. J. McDonnell, M. A. McCarthy, P. A. Vesk, R. T. Corlett, B. A. Norton, S. E. Clemants, R. P. Duncan, K. Thompson, M. W. Schwartz, and N. S. G. Williams. 2009. A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas. Ecology Letters 12:1165-1173.

Muir, M. J., and M. W. Schwartz. 2009. Academic Research Training for a Nonacademic Workplace: a Case Study of Graduate Student Alumni Who Work in Conservation. Conservation Biology 23:1357-1368.

Richardson, D. M., J. J. Hellmann, J. S. McLachlan, D. F. Sax, M. W. Schwartz, P. Gonzalez, E. J. Brennan, A. Camacho, T. L. Root, O. E. Sala, S. H. Schneider, D. M. Ashe, J. R. Clark, R. Early, J. R. Etterson, E. D. Fielder, J. L. Gill, B. A. Minteer, S. Polasky, H. D. Safford, A. R. Thompson, and M. Vellend. 2009. Multidimensional evaluation of managed relocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:9721-9724.

Safford, H.D., Hellmann, J.J., McLachlan, J., Sax, D.F., Schwartz, M.W. 2009. Managed relocation of species: Noah’s ark or Pandora’s box? Eos, 90(2): 15.

Schwartz, M. W., J. J. Hellmann, and J. S. McLachlan. 2009. The precautionary principle in managed relocation is misguided advice. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24:474-474.

Williams, J. N., C. W. Seo, J. Thorne, J. K. Nelson, S. Erwin, J. M. O’Brien, and M. W. Schwartz. 2009. Using species distribution models to predict new occurrences for rare plants. Diversity and Distributions 15:565-576.

Williams, N. S. G., M. W. Schwartz, P. A. Vesk, M. A. McCarthy, A. K. Hahs, S. E. Clemants, R. T. Corlett, R. P. Duncan, B. A. Norton, K. Thompson, and M. J. McDonnell. 2009. A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras. Journal of Ecology 97:4-9.



Banda, T., N. Mwangulango, B. Meyer, M. W. Schwartz, F. Mbago, M. Sungula, and T. Caro. 2008. The woodland vegetation of the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem in western Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 255:3382-3395.

Lawson, D.M., Lamar, C.K. and Schwartz , M.W. 2008. Quantifying plant population persistence in human dominated landscapes. Conservation Biology 22: 922-928.

Schwartz, M. W. 2008. The Performance of the Endangered Species Act. Pages 279-299. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics.

Schwartz, M. W., M. L. Hunter, and P. D. Boersma. 2008. Scientific Societies in the 21st Century: a Membership Crisis. Conservation Biology 22:1087-1089.


Lozano, F. D., J. C. M. Saiz, H. S. Ollero, and M. W. Schwartz. 2007. Effects of dynamic taxonomy on rare species and conservation listing: insights from the Iberian vascular flora. Biodiversity and Conservation 16:4039-4050.

McLachlan, J. S., J. J. Hellmann, and M. W. Schwartz. 2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology 21:297-302.


Banda, T., M. W. Schwartz, and T. Caro. 2006. Effects of fire on germination of Pterocarpus angolensis. Forest Ecology and Management 233:116-120.

Banda, T., M. W. Schwartz, and T. Caro. 2006. Woody vegetation structure and composition along a protection gradient in a miombo ecosystem of western Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 230:179-185.

Johnson, N. C., J. D. Hoeksema, J. D. Bever, V. B. Chaudhary, C. Gehring, J. Klironomos, R. Koide, R. M. Miller, J. Moore, P. Moutoglis, M. Schwartz, S. Simard, W. Swenson, J. Umbanhowar, G. Wilson, and C. Zabinski. 2006. From Lilliput to Brobdingnag: Extending models of mycorrhizal function across scales. Bioscience 56:889-900.

Otterstrom, S. M., M. W. Schwartz, and I. Velazquez-Rocha. 2006. Responses to fire in selected tropical dry forest trees. Biotropica 38:592-598.

Schwartz, M. W. 2006. How conservation scientists can help develop social capital for biodiversity. Conservation Biology 20:1550-1552.

Schwartz, M. W., J. D. Hoeksema, C. A. Gehring, N. C. Johnson, J. N. Klironomos, L. K. Abbott, and A. Pringle. 2006. The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum. Ecology Letters 9:501-515.

Schwartz, M. W., L. R. Iverson, A. M. Prasad, S. N. Matthews, and R. J. O’Connor. 2006. Predicting extinctions as a result of climate change. Ecology 87:1611-1615.

Schwartz, M. W., J. H. Thorne, and J. H. Viers. 2006. Biotic homogenization of the California flora in urban and urbanizing regions. Biological Conservation 127:282-291.

Thomson, D. M., and M. W. Schwartz. 2006. Using population count data to assess the effects of changing river flow on an endangered riparian plant. Conservation Biology 20:1132-1142.


Caro, T. M., M. Sungula, M. W. Schwartz, and E. M. Bella. 2005. Recruitment of Pterocarpus angolensis in the wild. Forest Ecology and Management 219:169-175.

Iverson, L.R. A.M. Prasad and M.W. Schwartz. 2005. Predicting potential changes in suitable habitat and distribution by 2100 for tree species of the eastern United States. J. Agricultural Meteorology 61:29-37.

Lozano, F. D., and M. W. Schwartz. 2005. Comparative taxonomic structure of the floras of two Mediterranean-climate regions: Iberia and California. Diversity and Distributions 11:399-408.

Lozano, F. D., and M. W. Schwartz. 2005. Patterns of rarity and taxonomic group size in plants. Biological Conservation 126:146-154.

Lyons, K. G., C. A. Brigham, B. H. Traut, and M. W. Schwartz. 2005. Rare species and ecosystem functioning. Conservation Biology 19:1019-1024.

Mills, M. H., and M. W. Schwartz. 2005. Rare plants at the extremes of distribution: broadly and narrowly distributed rare species. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:1401-1420.

Trowbridge, W. B., S. Kalmanovitz, and M. W. Schwartz. 2005. Growth of valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) in four floodplain environments in the Central Valley of California. Plant Ecology 176:157-164.


Iverson, L. R., M. W. Schwartz, and A. M. Prasad. 2004. How fast and far might tree species migrate in the eastern United States due to climate change? Global Ecology and Biogeography 13:209-219.

Iverson, L. R., M. W. Schwartz, and A. M. Prasad. 2004. Potential colonization of newly available tree-species habitat under climate change: an analysis for five eastern US species. Landscape Ecology 19:787-799.

van Mantgem, P., and M. Schwartz. 2004. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 34:1343-1347.


Hoeksema, J. D., and M. W. Schwartz. 2003. Expanding comparative-advantage biological market models: contingency of mutualism on partners’ resource requirements and acquisition trade-offs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 270:913-919.

Schwartz, M. W., and T. M. Caro. 2003. Effect of selective logging on tree and understory regeneration in miombo woodland in western Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 41:75-82.

van Mantgem, P., and M. Schwartz. 2003. Bark heat resistance of small trees in Californian mixed conifer forests: testing some model assumptions. Forest Ecology and Management 178:341-352.


Schwartz, M. W., T. M. Caro, and T. Banda-Sakala. 2002. Assessing the sustainability of harvest of Pterocarpus angolensis in Rukwa Region, Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 170:259-269.

Schwartz, M. W., N. L. Jurjavcic, and J. M. O’Brien. 2002. Conservation’s disenfranchised urban poor. Bioscience 52:601-606.


Harcourt, A. H., and M. W. Schwartz. 2001. Primate evolution: A biology of Holocene extinction and survival on the southeast Asian Sunda Shelf islands. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 114:4-17.

Lyons, K. G., and M. W. Schwartz. 2001. Rare species loss alters ecosystem function – invasion resistance. Ecology Letters 4:358-365.

Schwartz, M. W., L. R. Iverson, and A. M. Prasad. 2001. Predicting the potential future distribution of four tree species in ohio using current habitat availability and climatic forcing. Ecosystems 4:568-581.

Schwartz, M. W., N. Jurjavcic, and J. O’Brien. 2001. You can help rare plants survive in the cities. Nature 411:991-992.

Schwartz, M. W., and D. Simberloff. 2001. Taxon size predicts rates of rarity in vascular plants. Ecology Letters 4:464-469.

van Mantgem, P., M. Schwartz, and M. B. Keifer. 2001. Monitoring fire effects for managed burns and wildfires: Coming to terms with pseudoreplication. Natural Areas Journal 21:266-273.


Gehlhausen, S. M., M. W. Schwartz, and C. K. Augspurger. 2000. Vegetation and microclimatic edge effects in two mixed-mesophytic forest fragments. Plant Ecology 147:21-35.

Panzer, R., and M. Schwartz. 2000. Effects of management burning on prairie insect species richness within a system of small, highly fragmented reserves. Biological Conservation 96:363-369.

Schwartz, M. W., C. A. Brigham, J. D. Hoeksema, K. G. Lyons, M. H. Mills, and P. J. van Mantgem. 2000. Linking biodiversity to ecosystem function: implications for conservation ecology. Oecologia 122:297-305.

Schwartz, M. W., S. M. Hermann, and P. J. van Mantgem. 2000. Estimating the magnitude of decline of the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia Arn.). Biological Conservation 95:77-84.

Schwartz, M. W., S. M. Hermann, and P. J. Van Mantgem. 2000. Population persistence in Florida torreya: Comparing modeled projections of a declining coniferous tree. Conservation Biology 14:1023-1033.


Iverson, L. R., A. Prasad, and M. W. Schwartz. 1999. Modeling potential future individual tree-species distributions in the eastern United States under a climate change scenario: a case study with Pinus virginiana. Ecological Modelling 115:77-93.

Schwartz, M. W. 1999. Choosing the appropriate scale of reserves for conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30:83-108.

Schwartz, M. W., and S. M. Hermann. 1999. Is slow growth of the endangered Torreya taxifolia (Arn.) normal? Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126:307-312.


Kwit, C., M. W. Schwartz, W. J. Platt, and J. P. Geaghan. 1998. The distribution of tree species in steepheads of the Apalachicola River Bluffs, Florida. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 125:309-318.

Panzer, R., and M. W. Schwartz. 1998. Effectiveness of a vegetation-based approach to insect conservation. Conservation Biology 12:693-702.

Schwartz, M. W., and J. D. Hoeksema. 1998. Specialization and resource trade: Biological markets as a model of mutualisms. Ecology 79:1029-1038.


Schwartz, M. W., and J. R. Heim. 1996. Effects of a prescribed fire on degraded forest vegetation. Natural Areas Journal 16:184-191.

Schwartz, M. W., D. J. Porter, S. M. Hermann, and G. Strobel. 1996. Occurrence of Pestalotiopsis microspora on Torreya taxifolia in Florida. Plant Disease 80:600-600.


Lee, J. C., X. S. Yang, M. Schwartz, G. Strobel, and J. Clardy. 1995. The relationship between an endangered North American tree and an endophytic fungus. Chemistry & Biology 2:721-727.

Robertson, K.R., M.W. Schwartz, J.W. Olson, B.K. Dunphy, and H.D. Clarke. 1995. 50 years of change in Illinois Hill Prairies. Erigenia 14:41-52.

Schwartz, M. W., S. M. Hermann, and C. S. Vogel. 1995. The catastrophic loss of Torreya taxifolia – assessing environmental induction of disease hypotheses. Ecological Applications 5:501-516.

Schwartz, M. W., and J. M. Randall. 1995. Valuing natural areas and controlling non-indigenous plants. Natural Areas Journal 15:98-100.

Taft, J. B., M. W. Schwartz, and R. P. Loy. 1995. Vegetation ecology of flatwoods on the Illinoian till plain. Journal of Vegetation Science 6:647-666.


Schwartz, M. W. 1994. Conflicting goals for conserving biodiversity – issues of scale and value. Natural Areas Journal 14:213-216.

Schwartz, M. W. 1994. Natural distribution and abundance of forest species and communities in northern Florida. Ecology 75:687-705.


Schwartz, M. W. 1993. Allozyme variation of the endangered Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia). Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 23:2598-2602.

Schwartz, M. W. 1993. Modeling effects of habitat fragmentation on the ability of trees to respond to climatic warming. Biodiversity and Conservation 2:51-61.

Schwartz, M. W. 1993. The search for pattern among rare plants – are primitive species more likely to be rare. Biological Conservation 64:121-127.

Schwartz, M. W., and S. M. Hermann. 1993. The continuing population decline of Torreya taxifolia Arn. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120:275-286.


Schwartz, M. W. 1992. Potential effects of global climate change on the biodiversity of plants. Forestry Chronicle 68:462-471.

Davis, M. B., M. W. Schwartz, and K. Woods. 1991. Detecting a species limit from pollen in sediments. Journal of Biogeography 18:653-668.

Schwartz, M. W. 1989. Predicting tree frequencies from pollen frequency – an attempt to validate the r-value method. New Phytologist 112:129-143.

Schwartz, M. W. 1988. Species-diversity patterns in woody flora on three North American peninsulas. Journal of Biogeography 15:759-774.


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